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The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia. The Bactrian camel has 2 humps on its back, as does the wild Bactrian camel (a separate species), but in contrast to the single-humped dromedary camel. Its population of 2,000,000 exists mainly in the domesticated form. Their name comes from the ancient historical region of Bactria.

The domesticated Bactrian camel has served as a pack animal in inner Asia since ancient times. With its tolerance for cold, drought, and high altitudes, it enabled the travel of caravans on the Silk Road.  A small number of feral Bactrian camels still roam the Mangystau Province of southwest Kazakhstan and the Nubra Valley in India.

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